In 1241 a mighty army from the steppes of central Asia invaded Poland and Hungary, overwhelming all resistance. The following year another horde of warriors invaded Slovenia, Croatia, Dalmatia, Serbia and Bulgaria, spreading devastation and death everywhere. You frightened the Europeans from their ferocity, hearing that they belonged to the Tatari tribe, they called them Tartars, thus linking the name to the hell of the ancients, namely Tartarus.
In reality, this name belonged to a single lineage, but remained to indicate all peoples of Central Asia, of Mongolian lineage.
From the earliest times, the immense plains of Central Asia were inhabited by different tribes of nomadic shepherds, often at war with each other to grab the best pastures. The Tartars lived in tents reinforced inside by a woven wicker frame. The curtain had a circular shape and carried an opening at the top to let the smoke out. During the migrations, the tents were taken apart and loaded onto huge carts and pulled by oxen. They did not cultivate the land because they considered this activity humiliating. Therefore they lived exclusively on pastoralism; the bread was quite rare and the cereals they sometimes consumed came from the conquered territories.
Towards the end of the twelfth century, the head of one of these tribes, Temugin, had the idea of gathering his subjects in compact masses and attacking neighboring peoples with them who were used to individual combat. Subdued the neighboring tribes and imposed his discipline on his neighbors, Tenugin was soon at the head of a mighty army and began to fight one people after another. In twenty years of wars and victories, Temugin managed to gather under his flags all nomads of Mongolia and had himself proclaimed Kha-Khan, that is, lord of lords, and took for himself the new name of Genghis. Having become emperor, Genghis-Khan gave his people written laws and a strict military and state order. Not yet satisfied with his conquests, he also ordered the attack on the Chinese Empire, defended along the borders by the great wall. Having overcome this obstacle, after five years of wars, devastation and extermination, Genghis-Khan entered Beijing and subdued all of northern China, where 50 million inhabitants lived. Three years later, Genghis Khan threw himself on Muslim lands in western and minor Asia, while another Mongol army, led by a loyal general, crossed Azerbaijan, Georgia, the Caucasus, Crimea and Bulgaria to invade the Southern Russia. When Genghis-Khan died, the Tartar empire extended over almost all of Asia.
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