His figure is shrouded in legend, in fact several spurious writings have been attributed to him. He was born in Samo an island in the eastern Aegean Sea in 570 BC. He died in Basilicata in 492 BC. He established his seat and founded a school in Crotone. his school had to follow some rules of an ascetic type (renunciation of bodily pleasures), aimed at internal purification and the increase of the intellect and one also had to be vegetarian.
at his school it was a sort of restricted and elictary philosopher-religious sect.The Pythagoreans had made their own the doctrine of Orphism (the most important religious phenomenon of a mystical nature that spread in Greece in the sixth century. metempsychosis that is the transmigration of souls, for them life was suffering and pain, and they incarnated themselves as the punishment of an original sin.). could reach with knowledge.They thought that the ignorant was the one who has more guilt.When the Pythagoreans entered the school they had to undergo an initiation rite that included the oath on the tetraktys (the number 10 which contained the four original elements). mathematics becomes a real science, in the sense that the number is placed at the center of a theoretical reflection. According to them, the number is the archè:
-Everything that exists can be traced back to a geometric figure which in turn can be traced back to points, each of which corresponds to a unit.
-for the first time, reality becomes measurable.
According to the Pythagoreans, each number had its own meaning:
1 = was called parimpari was neither even nor odd
2 = represented the woman (imperfect)
3 = represented man (perfect)
5 = marriage because man plus woman equals five
Even numbers were imperfect because they were unlimited;
Odd numbers were perfect because they were limited.
From the opposition between even and odd all the oppositions of the universe derive (even-odd, male-female, light-dark, good-evil, limit-unlimited, one-multiple).
They also considered at the center of the universe a fire, called hestia, from which the universe originated and regulates the movement of ten planets:
10-the fixed stars.
According to Pythagoras they move under mathematical laws, when they move they produce music, so the cosmos is harmony.
When a soul reaches catharsis it rejoins the divine and harmonious soul of the universe.
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