Having unveiled the alleged religious and metaphysical certainties Nietzsche, nihilism becomes the fundamental category of his philosophizing.
According to the philosopher, it is possible to give the term two meanings of meaning:
- “the will of nothing”, that is, every attitude of flight and renunciation towards the world, which he sees embodied in Platonism and Christianity.
- the situation of modern and contemporary man, who, no longer believing in “supreme values”, or in a metaphysical sense or purpose of things, ends up feeling, in the face of being, the dismay of emptiness and nothingness.
This failure of the supreme values to which the West, starting from Plato, has entrusted itself, stems from the illusion revealed as such, which, however, is replaced by a misunderstanding: once those values are eliminated, we tend to consider the lack of any other type of value; thus one falls into the total emptying of meaning.
Nietzsche declares himself a nihilist, having demonstrated the lying character of the alleged truths, in such a way as to overcome nihilism itself. The philosophical movement of nihilism and Nietzsche In this regard, he distinguishes two types of nihilism:
- active nihilism, which consists in questioning the values of tradition, but not placing new ones
- passive nihilism, which produces an attitude of complacency and bewilderment in the face of the senselessness of the world
Nietzsche rejects passive nihilism and proceeds beyond the active one, tending to a radical nihilism which must, after having annulled the supreme values, propose a new sense of things.
Hence the figure of the superman, who must propose a sense to the chaotic lack of sense of the world, must reinvent the sense of the world, but not through other fables, rather in the awareness that the world is chaos and that man is at its center. and interprets it.
In short, the superman will have to endure the death of God, the annihilation of values and re-emerge, or re-elaborate his condition in the world.
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