Kant is an intellectual who is affected by the rationalist orientation who sees reason as an irrefutable process, however, at the same time, he feels admiration for science which, however, was questioned by Hume by saying that the cause-effect relationship does not exist. Having a passion for metaphysics, Kant wonders if the latter can have the same irrefutability as science.
From these assumptions, the main problem of Kantian philosophy concerns knowledge, that is, what is known and what is not. What can be known must be universal, the same for everyone. We have three periods: – the pre-critical period: in which we see Kant’s interest in metaphysics decrease and at the same time that for science grows. In fact, he wants to refute Hume’s theses and defend science. To do this he must face the problem of knowledge for which he will also revisit his passion: metaphysics. – Dissertation on time and space: it is a work written in 1770 and which analyzes time and space by finding a new transcendental dimension of philosophy which is functional-formal. Starting from the analysis of sensations (sensation: act through which the subject receives data from the outside) “discovers” that the sensations have two components: the passive one, which is the sensation itself, and the active one, where the subject participates to the sensation through structures, functions that Kant finds in space and time which are transcendental and universal forms. – Critical period: we can divide it into criticism of pure reason (what can I know?), Criticism of practical reason (what can I do and what can I believe?) And the criticism of judgment.
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