Availability of work: it was due to the privatization of land because there had been the phenomenon of enclousures, so some farmers remained in the countryside at the service of large landowners as laborers, others went to the cities in search of employment to survive.
In addition, England, in the period of the Industrial Revolution, had at its disposal raw materials such as iron, coal, cotton, wool, etc.
Another very important factor during the First Industrial Revolution is the mentality because to have an industry there is a need for a widespread mentality and culture (in fact in England there was a bourgeoisie open to new ideas).
Thanks to all this, technological progress was favored in England. The first sector involved was the textile one.
James Watt invented the steam engine, in 1733 John Kay invented the automatic spool that speeded up spinning in order to double the products, in 1763 Jenny the mechanical spinner was invented capable of increasing the quantity of yarn produced by 8 times, subsequently it was conceived the Jenny with hydraulic motor (the invention of the pressure cooker also dates back to this period). the First Industrial Revolution
In the textile industry, wooden machinery began to be replaced with iron ones, which are more efficient, faster and above all more durable. This increased the demand for metals which favored the development of the metallurgical and mining sectors.
Consequences: During the Industrial Revolution, with the spread of these machinery, real industrial centers gradually formed, so artisan production went into crisis, thus causing an increase in the availability of manpower. The first industries were born along the waterways (we said that the hydraulic motor was invented). In this way artisans and farmers go to the city in search of employment to secure a salary that would guarantee the survival of themselves and their family. Precisely because of their need to have a salary to survive, the industrialists took advantage of this by starting the exploitation of man with very low wages, heavy working hours and precarious working conditions. Gradually we ended up preferring female and child labor which was underpaid; it was obvious that sooner or later the man would have rebelled and in 1779 the first workers’ demonstration began which took the name of “Luddite demonstrations” from the worker Ned Ludd who rebelled by kicking a spinner.
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