Heraclitus lived in Ephesus and belonged to noble notals. At the basis of his thought there is no contrast between the philosophy he identified as truth and the common mentality of men which he considered a place of error. The philosopher speaks to us of “awake and asleep”: – the awake are the philosophers who go beyond appearances and are able to grasp the essence of things; the sleepers are the non-philosophers, that is, the philosophers who stop at appearances and fail to grasp the reality of things.
Heraclitus has gone down in history as the philosopher of becoming, since he leads the world back to a perennial flow where everything flows, therefore like the current of a river, whose waters are never the same and therefore it is impossible to bathe twice in the same river. , from this reflection derives the slogan “panta rei”, or “everything flows”.
The form of being therefore is becoming, since everything is transformed, so nothing is static but everything is dynamic. For Heraclitus, fire represents the origin of things; therefore everything that exists comes from the fire and returns to the fire according to a process of continuous transformation. The philosopher develops the theory of the unity of opposites, according to which an opposite cannot exist without the other (example: good and evil). Opposites cannot exist without each other, so what at first glance may seem in disorder, that is the struggle of things with each other, is in reality a form of rationality. This law is defined with the term logos = reason.
For the philosopher, the harmony of the world does not lie in the reconciliation of opposites, but in their opposition which ensures harmony and not the achievement of a quiet death. Heraclitus believes that God is the unity of all opposites, the place where they find reconciliation, such as: day and night, winter and summer, war and peace. It is therefore a GOD-ALL, which for Heraclitus represents an uncreated reality that has always existed.
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