The American Revolution, also known as the American Revolutionary War, was that conflict that led to the clash between the thirteen North American colonies and the British kingdom in the period of time between 1775 and 1783. With this war, the thirteen colonies had the intention to become independent from the British motherland. In the year 1778 the war, which broke out as a local claim by the colonies, turned into a global war that also involved the main European countries for the control of the colonial territories conquered overseas.
France, Spain and the United Provinces took the side of the American colonies; in particular, France wanted to challenge the British motherland following the events that involved it during the famous seven years war. The American war of independence lasted a long time and ended with the victory of the American colonies at the expense of Great Britain.
Here are the main events that led to the outbreak of the American Revolution. Towards the second half of the eighteenth century. England had 13 colonies in North America, conquered peacefully without the use of weapons, as they were uninhabited.
England, which by now had become very powerful, was not satisfied with all those lands it already possessed and therefore moved towards West America, towards the Pacific Ocean, but the conquest was not so peaceful due to the presence of the Indians Red Indians, so a war broke out which was naturally won by the British, who possessed firearms. They forced their rivals to abandon their lands.
England attached importance to all freedoms to the 13 colonies, except for the freedom of trade, in fact they required them to trade only with the motherland. In fact, they supplied the motherland with precious goods at very low cost, such as cocoa, coffee, sugar, cotton, gold, tea. These colonies were mainly inhabited by Puritans, but also by cadet sons of noble English families, by members of the many sects born of the Puritans, or by desperate people who accepted the contract of “temporary slavery”. They were diversified between:
Colonies of the Center
The northern colonies were populated by English Puritans who had developed agriculture based on small ownership, but also lived on fishing, shipbuilding and maritime trade.
The colonies of the Center were inhabited by a mixed population: British, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, French and Swiss.
Southern colonies based their economy on large estates.
These colonies were united by British politics, Christian faith and the English language, but also discontent with their belonging to London: in fact they could not build manufactured products, they had to give the ships of their yards to the English and they could not mint money: they had to use the British pound.
But, on the other hand, they did not pay any taxes to England, a privilege that fell in 1764, when the motherland was in financial crisis after having faced (and won) the Seven Years’ War. He then imposed a heavy tax on tea and a Stamp Act to be applied to newspapers, public documents and commercial transactions.
According to the “Bill of rights”, this taxation was illegal, so the settlers rebelled by claiming: “Those who have no representatives in Parliament do not pay taxes.” In 1773 a group of Bostonians disguised as Indians, as a provocation, threw an entire shipment of English tea into the sea, which was then lost. This episode (Boston Tea Party) was the straw that broke the camel’s back: the king of England, deeply irritated, sent his troops to America in 1775.
Thus broke out the American Revolution, which lasted from 1775 to 1783. On July 4, 1776, the representatives of the thirteen colonies met in Philadelphia, where American independence of the United States of America was proclaimed. In 1787 the now former colonies adopted a Constitution that made the United States of America a federal republic, and applied the division of powers.
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